The mildness of the sentences and the ease with which the young conspirator effected his frequent escapes lend colour to the unproved speculation that Dzhugashvili was for a time an agent provocateur in the pay of the imperial political police. Due to this expansion, a secretariat became a necessity.  At the Congress, where Kamenev acted as the United Opposition's spokesman due to Trotsky's and Zinoviev's expulsion, the United Opposition were unable to gain the support of more than a small minority of the Communist Party, and they were expelled after the Congress declared United Opposition views to be incompatible with Communist Party membership. The Tribunal was presided over by Vasili Ulrikh and included marshals Vasily Blyukher, Semyon Budyonny and Army Commanders Yakov Alksnis, Boris Shaposhnikov, Ivan Panfilovich Belov, Pavel Dybenko, and Nikolai Kashirin. Soon after Lenin's death, Stalin joined Zinoviev and Kamenev in a Politburo Triumvirate. He was short, stocky, black-haired, fierce-eyed, with one arm longer than the other, his swarthy face scarred by smallpox contracted in infancy.  In September 1936, Stalin fired the head of the NKVD, Genrikh Yagoda, and replaced him with the more aggressive and zealous Yezhov, with Yezhov overseeing the most brutally oppressive period of Stalin's Great Purge from late 1936 to late 1938.
But he received messages and political visitors, and between the autumn of 1922 and spring of 1923, he resumed his party leadership in Moscow.  Although Zinoviev and Kamenev were disconcerted by Stalin's power and some of his policies, they needed Stalin's help in opposing Trotsky's faction and to prevent Trotsky's possible succession to Lenin in a power struggle. With Soviet help, the Republic of China built up the nationalist people's army. Robert Service. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But it was his position as secretary general of the party’s Central Committee, from 1922 until his death, that provided the power base for his dictatorship. His pseudonym, Stalin, means "man of the steel hand".
As the war progressed, Stalin participated in the major Allied conferences, including those in Tehran (1943) and Yalta (1945). Stalin ruled by terror and with a totalitarian grip in order to eliminate anyone who might oppose him. During the years of 1926 and 1927, Soviet policy toward the Chinese Revolution became the ideological line of demarcation between Stalin and the United Opposition. As a boy, Stalin contracted smallpox, which left him with lifelong facial scars. In the summer of 1930, Stalin exposed Kalinin's embezzlement of state funds, which he spent on a mistress. As a teen, he earned a scholarship to attend a seminary in the nearby city of Tblisi and study for the priesthood in the Georgian Orthodox Church. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Much of China was divided between various regional warlords. During Lenin's semi-retirement, Stalin forged a triumvirate alliance with Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev in May 1922, against Trotsky. Stalin used Zinoviev and Kamenev to combat Trotsky, while appearing as "The Golden Centre Man". Frustrated by the squabbling factions within the Communist Party during what he saw as a time of crisis, Lenin convinced the Tenth Congress to pass a ban on any opposition to official Central Committee policy (the Ban on Factions, a law which Stalin would later exploit to expel his enemies). After Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) died, Stalin outmaneuvered his rivals for control of the party. Stalin came to power when Lenin died in 1924 by outmaneuvering his rivals to become the head of the Communist Party and then the dictator of the Soviet Union. By now he had adopted the name Stalin, deriving from Russian stal (“steel”); he also briefly edited the newly founded Bolshevik newspaper Pravda before undergoing his longest period of exile: in Siberia from July 1913 to March 1917. Updates? In his prime, Stalin was hailed as a universal genius, as a “shining sun,” or “the staff of life,” and also as a “great teacher and friend” (especially of those communities he most savagely persecuted); once he was even publicly invoked as “Our Father” by a metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church. His development plan was centered on government control of the economy and included the forced collectivization of Soviet agriculture, in which the government took control of farms. There are multiple theories on the hostility between Stalin and Trotsky, and when it began.
Bukharin confessed to conspiring against Stalin, and was executed on 15 March 1938, on the same day that former NKVD chief, Yagoda, was also executed. In about 1904 Stalin had married a pious Georgian girl, Ekaterina Svanidze. The KGB served a multi-faceted role outside of and within the Soviet Union, working as both an intelligence agency and a force of “secret police.” It was also tasked with some of ...read more, Joseph Hooker (1814-1879) was a career U.S. military officer who served as a major general and commander of the Union Army of the Potomac during the Civil War (1861-65). Spearheading Stalin's purges was a Commissar called Nikolai Yezhov, a fervent Stalinist and a believer in violent repression. His government also controlled the Soviet media. After the Social Democrats (Marxist revolutionaries) of the Russian Empire had split into their two competing wings—Menshevik and Bolshevik—in 1903, Dzhugashvili joined the second, more militant, of these factions and became a disciple of its leader, Lenin. Stalin's revelation made Zinoviev, in particular, very unpopular with many inside the Communist Party. Stalin had threatened to have her prosecuted for having disturbed Lenin with political matters during his recovery.
This activity was soon reported to Stalin and was later used against Bukharin as proof of his factionalism.
The mother, a devout washerwoman, had dreamed of her son becoming a priest, but Joseph Dzhugashvili was more ruffianly than clerical in appearance and outlook. (Adopted in December 1924, it shaped the Soviet Union.) Joseph Stalin was a Georgian born student radical who became a member and eventually a leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In 1933, the year Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) became chancellor of Germany, he named Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), his trusted friend and colleague, to the key post of minister for public enlightenment and propaganda.  In April 1935, Kamenev's prison sentence was increased by another 5 years, to a total of 10 years imprisonment. A bout of childhood smallpox scarred his face, and his left arm was mangled, most likely in a carriage accident. In January 1935, Zinoviev was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, and Kamenev was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. He entered Tiflis Theological Seminary to train as a priest, but he left school in 1899. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hooker entered the Civil War in 1861 as a brigadier general and gained a reputation as a reliable combat ...read more, Since its start a century ago, Communism, a political and economic ideology that calls for a classless, government-controlled society in which everything is shared equally, has seen a series of surges—and declines. Physically strong and endowed with prodigious willpower, he early learned to disguise his true feelings and to bide his time; in accordance with the Caucasian blood-feud tradition, he was implacable in plotting long-term revenge against those who offended him. https://www.history.com/topics/russia/joseph-stalin.  In late 1935, Stalin reopened the case. What started in 1917 Russia, became a global revolution, taking ...read more, The question of where Russia begins and ends—and who constitutes the Russian people—has preoccupied Russian thinkers for centuries. In January 1928, Stalin personally travelled to Siberia where he oversaw the seizure of grain stockpiles from kulak farmers.
Lenin never fully recovered and died in January 1924. This Northern Expedition became a point of contention over foreign policy by Stalin and Trotsky.  It was in the Georgian affairs that Stalin first began to play his own hand. Since his falling out with Stalin in 1928–1929, Bukharin had written an endless stream of letters of repentance and admiration to Stalin. Stalin began pushing for more rapid industrialisation and central control of the economy, a position which alienated Bukharin and the Right Opposition, but which appeared close to what the Left Opposition had advocated before they were banned. Stalin grew up poor and an only child. He adopted the name Koba, after a fictional Georgian outlaw-hero, and joined the more militant wing of the Marxist Social Democratic movement, the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin. The Tukhachevsky trial triggered a massive subsequent purge of the Red Army. But the most prominent Bolshevik after Lenin's death was Leon Trotsky, who led a group of his own. During this phase, Stalin instead joined forces with the "right" of the Bolshevik Party. Stalin's connections helped him to gain influential positions behind the scenes in the Soviet-Russian government. Following the October Revolution, Stalin took military positions in the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War. Upon Lenin's death, Stalin was officially hailed as his successor as the leader of the ruling Communist Party and of the Soviet Union itself. Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and the senior Red Army military officers Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman and Vitaly Primakov (as well as Yakov Gamarnik, who committed suicide before the investigations began) were accused of anti-Soviet conspiracy and sentenced to death; they were executed on the night of 11 to 12 June 1937, immediately after the verdict delivered by a Special Session (специальное судебное присутствие) of the Supreme Court of the USSR. Many supporters of Kamenev and Zinoviev's group, as well as most from the Workers Opposition grouping, had left the United Opposition by mid-1927, changing sides under the growing political pressure and espousing their support for Stalin. Lenin was disturbed by a report on violent atrocities committed in Georgia, reported by the head of the security police GPU, Felix Dzerzhinsky. Kamenev and Zinoviev were courted by Bukharin at the beginning of his short and ill-fated struggle with Stalin in the summer of 1928. The cost was tremendous, however: Stalin was responsible for the deaths of millions of Soviet citizens. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2014 turned these concerns into a big “Russian question” ...read more, French military commander Joseph Joffre (1852-1931) studied at the École Polytechnique. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. After the United Opposition were illegalized in December 1927, the Kulaks and NEPmen were emboldened and exerted much greater economic pressure on the Soviet government in the months afterwards. He was the son of a poor cobbler in the provincial Georgian town of Gori in the Caucasus, then an imperial Russian colony. He prepared the agenda for the Politburo meetings, directing the course of meetings. Nadezhda committed suicide in her early 30s. In late 1920, with the crises in society following the Russian Civil War, Trotsky argued for the trade unions to be incorporated more and more into the workers' state, and for the workers' state to completely control the industrial sectors. This saw a strengthening of Stalin's alliance with Bukharin.
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